Transglutaminase in milk processing (TG)

Transglutaminase (TG) is an enzyme catalyzing the formation of covalent bonds between the amino groups of similar or different proteins.

It helps for the polymerization and their cross-linking. The higher the content of proteins is, prodused in greater the effect of TG.

The bonds formed by TG exhibit visco-resistance to proteolytic reduction, which improves the properties of the proteins in food.

In addition to that, the cross-linking process of the molecules of the proteins leads to increase of the water binding in the end product, and thus to a higher yield. As a result of the polymerization and the cross-linking of the protein, better consistency of the product is accomplished in the short run, and the ready product is made significantly faster.
TG is a white to light grey powder without peculiar smell. It is used in the food industry - meat, fish or seafood, bread and milk processing.

Effect in the milk processing sectors:

  1. TG improves the softness and viscosity of the yoghurt, and thus it improves the yield and the taste.
  2. TG catalyzes the combination of caseins, and thus it improves the strength of the gel.
  3. It reduces the excretion of the whey in the product, because it improves the capacity of the binding of the water.
  4. It increases the yield up to 12-15% and thus reduces the costs of production.

For the production of yogurt:

Transglutaminase is added after the pasteurization and the cooling of the milk at 40-45° C. It is advisable first to be diluted with milk and to be added at the beginning filling of the tub. Thus it is provided a time for reaction and better homogenization. After filling in the container it is homogenized and it should be left at least 5 minutes.

The dosage in the general case is 100-400 g/t raw material. It mainly depends on the protein content of the used raw materials, the temperature and the time.

For the production of cheese:

The modern production of various types of cheese consists of series of different processes. There are no equal two types of cheese which are produced in the same way.
In the raw materials the cheese has an abundance of casein and lacto-albumen. TG stimulates the binding of casein and lacto-albumen, reducing the loss of lacto-albumen in the whey. Thus, the production of the cheese is increased up to 12-15 %.

Transglutaminase is added after the pasteurization and the cooling of the milk to 40-45° C. It is advisable first to be diluted with milk and to be added at the beginning of the filling of the tub. Thus it is provided a time for reaction and well-done homogenization. It is advisable after the tub is filled to wait a few minutes in order the substance to be extra homogenized. Then, the processes in terms of production technology follow.

The dosage of TG CH in the general case is 200-800 g/1, and TG CH conc, 10-15 grams per ton of raw material. The dosage of the protein content depends on the used raw materials, the temperature and the time.